DIVERSITY OF LIFE

SYNOPTIC DESCRIPTION OF THE PHYLUM BETAPROTEOBACTERIA

EUBACTERIA>PROTEOBACTERIAE>BETAPROTEOBACTERIA
The following description comes mainly from Garrity et al. (2003).  
I. SYNONYMS: β-proteobacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, .  

II. PHYLUM CHARACTERISTICS:

A. Structure

Cell Form: Variable; rods, cocci, spirals; and filaments.

Cell Wall: Gram-.

Motility: Non-motile or motile; some are mobile (move without flagella in contact with a substrate).

B. Physiology

O2 Tolerance: Aerobes or facultative anaerobes.

Substrates: Some obtain their carbon from CO2 and a variety of organic sources.  Electron sources are sulfur compounds and hydrogen.  Others utilize ammonium and other nitrogen compounds.  Most are chemoorganotrophs and chemolithotrophs.

Products: They produce a variety of oxidized carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur compounds.

C. Other: Very diverse group of bacteria.

D. Ecology: Free-living in soils and aquatic sediments; some are nodule-formers.

 

LITERATURE CITED

Black, J. G. 2002. Microbiology, Principles and Explorations. 5th ed. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. New York.

Brock, T. D., M.T. Madigan, J.M. Martinko, and J. Parker. 1994. Biology of Microorganisms. 7th ed. Prentice Hall. Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Emerson, D., J. A. Rentz, T. G. Lilburn, R. E. Davis, H. Aldrich, C. Chan, and C. L. Moyer. 2007. A novel lineage of Proteobacteria involved in formation of marine Fe-oxidizing microbial mat communities. PLoS ONE. 2007 (8): e667. http://www.plosone.org

Gao, B. and R. S. Gupta. 2007. Phylogenetic analysis of proteins that are distinctive of Archaea and its main subgroups and the origin of methanogenesis. BMC Genomics. 8:86. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/8/86.

Garrity, G. M., M. Winters, and D. Searles. 2001. Bergey's manual of systematic bacteriology. 2nd ed. Springer-Verlag. New York.

Garrity, G. M., J. A. Bell, and T. G. Lilburn. 2003. Taxonomic Outline of the Prokaryotes. Bergey's Manual of Systematic Bacteriology. 2nd edition. Release 4.0. Springer-Verlag. New York.  pp. 1-397.

Margulis, L. and K. Schwartz. 1988. Five kingdoms, an illustrated guide to the phyla of life on earth. 2nd Edition. W. H. Freeman and Co.  New York.

Margulis, L. and K. Schwartz. 1998. Five kingdoms, an illustrated guide to the phyla of life on earth. 3nd Edition. W. H. Freeman and Co.  New York.

Stackebrandt, E., R. G. E. Murray, and H. G. Trüper. 1988. Proteobacteria classis nov., a name for the phylogenetic taxon that includes the "Purple Bacteria and Their Relatives". International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology. 38(3):  321-325.

Tudge, C. 2000. The Variety of Life, A Survey and a Celebration of all the Creatures That Have Ever Lived. Oxford University Press. New York.

Williams, K. P., B. W. Sobral, and A. W. Dickerman. 2007. A robust species tree for the Alphaproteobacteria. Journal of Bacteriology. 189(13): 4578-4586. 

Woese, C. R. and G. E. Fox. 1977. Phylogenetic structure of the prokaryotic domain: the primary kingdoms. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA . 74:5088-5090.

Woese, C. R., O. Kandler, and M. L. Wheelis. 1990. Towards a natural system of organisms: Proposal for the domains Archaea, Bacteria, and Eucarya. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 87: 4576-4579.

 

By Jack R. Holt.  Last revised: 02/18/2013