DIVERSITY OF LIFE

GEOLOGICAL TIME SCALE

After International Union of Geological Sciences: International Commission on Stratigraphy, 2002, 2003 and 2004.  From Mikko's Phylogeny Page http://www.fmnh.helsinki.fi/users/haaramo/Timetables/Timetable_eng.htm

Eon

Era

Period

ended (MYA):

began (MYA):

P
h
a
n
e
r
o
z
o
i
c

Cenozoic

Holocene

0 0.0115
Pleistocene 0.0115 1.806
Pliocene 1.806 5.332
Miocene 5.332 23.03

Oligocene

23.03 33.9
Eocene 33.9 55.8
Paleocene 55.8 65.5

Mesozoic

Cretaceous

65.5 ± 0.3 145.5 ± 4.0

Jurassic

145.5 ± 4.0 199.6 ± 0.6

Triassic

199.6 ± 0.6 251.0 ± 0.4

Paleozoic

Permian

251.0 ± 0.4 299.0 ± 0.8

Carboniferous

299.0 ± 0.8 359.2 ± 2.5

Devonian

359.2 ± 2.5 416.0 ± 2.8

Silurian

416.0 ± 2.8 443.7 ± 1.5

Ordovician

443.7 ± 1.5 488.3 ± 1.7

Cambrian

488.3 ± 1.7 542.0 ± 1.0

P
r
o
t
e
r
o
t
z
o
i
c

Neoproterozoic

Ediacaran

542.0 ± 1.0 650

Cryogenian

650 850

Tonian

850 1000

Mesoproterozoic
[“Riphean”]

Stenian

1000 1200

Ectasian

1200 1400

Calymmian

1400 1600

Paleoproterozoic

Statherian

1600 1800

Orosirian

1800 2050

Rhyacian

2050 2300

Siderian

2300 2500

A
r
c
h
e
a
n

Neoarchean

 

2500 2800

Mesoarchean

2800 3200

Paleoarchean
[“Isuan”]

3200 3600

Eoarchean

3600 not defined

H
a
d
e
a
n

 

 

 

 

Note: The color scheme of this table follows the official recommendation of the IUGS and ICS.

LITERATURE CITED

Bowring, S. A., J. P. Grotzinger, C. E. Isachsen, A. H. Knoll, S. M. Pelechaty, and P. Kolosov, 1993. Calibrating rates of early Cambrian evolution. Science. 261(3): 1293-1298.

Gradstein, F. M., F. P. Agterberg, J. G. Ogg, J. Hardenbol, P. van Veen, J. Thierry, and Z. Huang. 1995. A Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous time scale. In: W. A. Bergren, D. V. Kent, M.-P. Aubry, and  J. Hardenbol, eds. Geochronology, Time Scales, and Global Stratigraphic Correlation. SEPM Special Publication No. 54. pp. 95-126.

Remane, J., M. B. Cita, J. Dercourt, P. Bouysse, F. Repetto, and A. Faure-Muret, eds. 2002. International Stratigraphic Chart. International Union of Geological Sciences. International Commission on Stratigraphy, Paris. [http://www.stratigraphy.org/]

Remane, J., Cita, M. B., Dercourt, J., Bouysse, P., Repetto, F. & Faure-Muret, A., (eds.) 2003: International Stratigraphic Chart.
–International Union of Geological Sciences: International Commission on Stratigraphy, Paris, 2003
[http://www.stratigraphy.org/]

International Commission on Stratigraphy: 2004: International Stratigraphic Chart.
–International Union of Geological Sciences: International Commission on Stratigraphy, Paris, 2004
[http://www.stratigraphy.org/]

 

By Jack R. Holt.  Last revised: 01/16/2014