DIVERSITY OF LIFE

DESCRIPTION OF THE KINGDOM ALVEOLATAE (CAVALIER-SMITH 1993)

EUKARYA>CHROMALVEOLATA>ALVEOLATAE

This is a taxonomy of the Kingdom Alveolatae.  The following taxonomy reflects biases of those who study the different phyla.  By and large, the dinoflagellates have been studied in the tradition of botany and the Apicomplexans and Ciliata have been studied in the tradition of parasitology and protozoology, respectively.

 

PHYLUM DINOFLAGELLATA

     SUBPHYLUM DINOPHYTINA

CLASS DINOPHYCEAE

ORDER GYMNODINIALES

Gymnodinium, Amphidinium, Cochlodinium, Gyrodinium, Katodinium, Torodinium, Woloszynskia, Polykrikos, Erythropsodinium, Nematodinium, Actiniscus.

ORDER PTYCHODISCALES

Ptychodiscus, Karenia

ORDER SUESSIALES

Symbiodinium, Endodinium, Zooxanthella.

ORDER GONYAUCALES

Cladopyxis, Micracanthodinium, Amphidoma, Palaeophalacroma, Gonyaulax, Amylax, Protoceratium, Peridinella, Ceratocorys, Ceratium, Triadinium (=Goniodoma), Helgolandinium, Alexandrium, Pyrophacus, Pyrodinium, Pyrocystis, Thecadinium, Heterodinium, Crypthecodinium.

ORDER PERIDINIALES

Heterocapsa, Peridinium, Scrippsiella, Pentapharsodinium, Protoperidinium, Diplosalis, Oblea, Diplopsalopsis, Podolampas, Blepharocysta, Oxytoxum, Amphidiniopsis.

ORDER DINOPHYSIALES

Dinophysis, Amphisolenia, Histoneis, Tripsolenia, Ornithocercus.

ORDER PROROCENTRALES

Prorocentrum, Mesoporos.

ORDER PHYTODINIALES

Dinothrix, Stylodinium, Hemidinium (= Gloeodinium in nonmotile stage), Cystodinium, Cystodinedria, Tetradinium, Raciborskia.

ORDER BLASTODINES

Blastodinium, Amyloodinium, Crepidoodinium, Pfiesteria, Dissodinium, Actinodinium, Apodinium, Chyryodinium, Haplozoon, Oodinium, Parapodinium, Protoodinium, Cystodinedria.

CLASS NOCTILUCIPHYCEAE

ORDER NOCTILUCALES

Noctiluca, Leptodiscus, Kofoidinium..

CLASS SYNDINIOPHYCEAE

ORDER SYNDINIALES.

Syndinium, Amoebophrya, Duboscquella, Oxyrris, Coccidinium, Merodinium.

     SUBPHYLUM OXYRRHIPHYTINA

Oxyrrhis.

     SUBPHYLUM PERKINSIPHYTINA

Perkinsus, Parvilucifera.

 

PHYLUM CILIOPHORA

SUBPHYLUM POSTCILIODESMATOPHORA

  CLASS KARYORELICTEA

ORDER PROTOSTOMATIDA

Kentrophoros, Trachelophoros, Prototrachelocerca, Tracheloraphis, Trachelonema, Tracelocerca.

ORDER LOXODIDA

Loxodes, Remanella, Cryptopharynx, Apocryptopharynx.

ORDER PROTOHETEROTRICHIDA

Avelia, Geleia.  

  CLASS HETEROTRICHEA

ORDER LICNOPHORIDA

Licnophora

ORDER HETEROTRICHIDA

Magnifolliculina, Folliculina, Parafolliculina, Metafolliculina, Pebrilla, Peritromus, Stentor, Parablepharisma, Anigsteinia, Blepharisma, Pseudoblepharisma, Sprostomum, Gruberia, Condylostoma, Condylostomides, Linostoma, Fabrea, Climacostomum, Copemetopus.

SUBPHYLUM INTRAMACRONUCLEATA

  CLASS SPIROTRICHEA

    SUBCLASS PROTOCRUZIIDA

ORDER PROTOCRUZIIDA

Protocruzia.

    SUBCLASS HYPOTRICHIA

ORDER EUPLOTIDA

Psammocephalus, Marginotricha, Prodiscocephalus, Discocephalus, Paradiophrys, Uronychia, Diophryopsis, Diophrys, Euplotapsis, Certesia, Gastrocirrhus, Euplotidium, Cytharoides, Euplotes.

    SUBCLASS CHOREOTRICHIA

ORDER TINTINNIDA

Usually sessile; attached by aboral process to lorica.

Tintinnidium, Tintinnopsis, Poroecus, Codonella, Codonaria, Stenosemella, Codonellopsis, Laackmanniella, Coxiella, Nolaclusilis, Climacocylis, Coxiella, Helicostomella, Metacylis, Acanthostomella, Ascampbelliella, Epiplocylis, Ptychocylis, Rhabdonella, Rhabdonellopsis, Petalotricha, Cyttarocylis, Xystonella, Cymatocylis, Favella, Parafavella, Parundella, proplectella, Undella, Tintinnus, Eutintinnus, Amphorellopsis, Salpingacantha, Salpingella, Amphorides, Steenstrupiella.

ORDER CHOREOTRICHIDA

Strombilidium, Strombidiniopsis, Leegaardiella, Lohmanniella.

    SUBCLASS STICHOTRICHIA

ORDER PLAGIOTOMIDA

Plagiotoma

ORDER UROSTYLIDA

Notocephalus, Eschaneustyla, Birojima, Urostyla, Australothrix, Paruroleptus, Parabakuella, Bakuella, Holosticha, Territricha, Pseudourostyla, Keronella, Tricoronella, Bicoronella, Pseudokeronopsis.

ORDER STICHOTRICHIDA

Chaetospira, Stichotricha, Hypotrichidium, Atractos, Spiretella, Mucotrichidium, Strongylidium, Urostrongylum, Psilotricha, Kerona, Keronopsis, Paraholosticha, Pseudouroleptus, Gastrostyla, Hemiamphisiella, Paramphisiella, Amphisiellides, Paragastrostyla, Orthoamphisiella, Periholosticha, Uroleptoides, Amphisiella, Neogeneia, Pseudokahliella, Kahliella, Trachelochaeta, Wallackia, Paraurostyla, Parakahliella, Cladotricha, Parentocirrus, Engelmanniella, Deviata.

ORDER SPORADOTRICHIDA

Terricirra, Hemisincirra, Trachelostyla, Lamtostyla, Gonostomum, Ancystropodium, Pleurotricha, Histriculus, Parastylonychia, Tachysoma, Laurentiella, Onychodromus, Coniculostomum, Onychodromopsis, Cyrtohymena, Pseudostrombidium, Sterkiella, Notohymena, Steinia, Australocirrus, Stylonychia, Urosoma, Urosomoida, Oxytricha.

    SUBCLASS OLIGOTRICHIA

ORDER HALTERIIDA

Meseres, Halteria, Pelagohalteria.

ORDER STROMBIDIIDA

Tontonia, Laboea, Cyrtostrombidium, Strombidium.

ORDER ARMOPHORIDA

Bothrostoma, Palmarella, Tesnospira, Brachonella, Eometopus, Metopus, Parametopsis, Cirranter, Caenomorpha, Ludio.

ORDER ODONTOSTOMATIDA

Mylestoma, Discomorphella, Atopodinium, Epalxella, Saprodinium.

ORDER CLEVELANDELLIDA

Clevelandella, Pronyctotherus, Nyctotherus, Nyctositum, Pygmotheroides, Nyctotheroides, Metanyctotherus, Paracichlidotherus, Cichlidotherus, Prosicuophora, Metasicuophora, Parasicuophora, Sicuophora.

ORDER PHACODINIIDA

Phacodinium

  CLASS LITOSTOMATEA

    SUBCLASS HAPTORIA

ORDER CYCLOTRICHIDA

Myrionecta, Mesodinium, Rhabdoaskinasia, Askenasia, Pelagovasicola.

ORDER HAPTORIDA

Paraenchelys, Pseudoholophrya, Ovalorhabdos, Didinium, Monodidinium, Cyclotrichium, Pseudotrachelocerca, Actinobolina, Paradileptus, Trachelius, Dileptus, Helicoporodon, Pleuroplites, Phialina, Lacrymaria, Homalozoon, Papillorhabdos, Enchelys, Enchelydium, Fuscheria, Acropisthium, Bryophyllum, Perispira, Myriokaryon, Cranotheridium, Protospathidium, Spathidium, Supraspathidium, Arcuospathidium, Epispathidium, Lepidotrachelophyllum, Foissnerides, Chaenea, Acaryophyra, Enchelyodon, Lagynophrya, Trachelophyllum.

ORDER PLEUROSTOMATIDA

Opisthodon, Amphileptus, Pseudoamphileptus, Loxophyllum, Siroloxophyllum, Litonotus, Acineria.

    SUBCLASS TRICHOSTOMATIA

ORDER VESTIBULIFERIDA

Paraisotricha, Dasytricha, Isotricha, Balantidium, Vestibulongum.

ORDER ENTODINIOMORPHIDA

Wolskana, Polymorphella, Didesmis, Alloiozona, Circodinium, Raabena, Blepharocorys, Ochoterenaia, Ophryoscolex, Eudiplodinium, Ostracodinium, Endoplastron, Cycloposthium, Triplumaria, Prototapirella, Cochliatoxum, Troglodytella

  CLASS PHYLLOPHARYNGEA

    SUBCLASS PHYLLOPHARYNGIA

ORDER CHLAMYDODONTIDA

Gymnozoum, Chitonella, Gaustronauta, Chlamydodon, Cyrtophoron, Thigmogaster, Trithigmostoma, Phascolodon, Chilodonatella, Chilodonella, Pseudochilodonopsis, Chlamydonellopsis, Coeloperix, Atopochilodon, Lynchella, Chlamydonella.

ORDER DYSTERIIDA

Karoikeus, Pithites, Atelepithites, Trochochilodon, Plesiotrichopus, Aegyriana, Trochopodiella, Microxysma, Brooklynella, Orthotrochilia, Trochilioides, Hartmannula, Hartmannulopsis, Microdysteria, Dysteria, Trochilia.

    SUBCLASS RHYNCHODIA

ORDER HYPOCOMATIDA

Crateristoma, Parahypocoma, Hypocoma.

ORDER RHYNCHODIDA

Sphenophrya, Stegotricha, Ancistrocoma, Insignicoma, Hypocomides, Crebricoma, Raabella, Hypocomatidium, Colligocineta, Hypocomella, Ignotocoma.

    SUBCLASS CHONOTRICHIA

ORDER CRYPTOGEMMIDA

Actinochona, Cristichona, Rhizochona, Carinichona, Isochonopsis, Isochona, Trichochona, Pleochona, Inversochona, Chonosaurus, Ceratochona, Kentrochona, Spinichona, Dentichona, Oxychonina, Eriochona, Stylochona, Armichona, Flectichona, Coronochona, Echinochona, Eurychona.

ORDER EXOGEMMIIDA

Phyllochona, Chilodochona, Vasichona, Spirochona, Cavichona, Serpentichona, Filichona, Aurichona, Heliochona, Heterochona, Toxochona, Oenophoracona, Physochona, Lobochona.

    SUBCLASS SUCTORIA

ORDER EXOGENIDA

Phalacrocleptes, Stylostoma, Trophogemma, Dendrosomides, Loricodendron, Ophryodendron, Spelaeophrya, Ephelota, Parapodophrya, Mucophrya, Manuelophrya, Gajewskajophrya, Sphaerophrya, Kystopus, Podophrya, Tachyblaston, Metacineta, Thecacineta, Paracineta, Urnula, Corynophrya, Ophryodendron.

ORDER ENDOGENIDA

Dendrosoma, Lernaeophrya, Trichophrya, Platophrya, Heliophrya, Enchelyomorpha, Endosphaera, Trypanococcus, Pseudogemma, Acinetopsis, Solenophrya, Acineta, Pseudocorynophrya, Loricophrya, Erastophrya, Rhyncheta, Choanophrya, Tokophrya, Staurophrya, Allantosoma, Dendrosoma, Dendromectes.

ORDER EVAGINOGENIDA

Cyathdinium, Stylocometes, Cometodendron, Dendrocometides, Dendrocometes, Dactylosoma, Rhynchophrya, Cyclophrya, Prodiscophrya, Discophrya, Periacineta.

  CLASS NASSOPHOREA

ORDER SYNHYMENIIDA

Phasmatopsis, Nassulopsis, Orthodonella, Zosterodasys.

ORDER NASSULIDA

Obertrumia, Naxella, Rhinakis, Nassula, Furgasonia, Parafurgasonia, Paranassula, Enneameron, Pedohymena, Colpodium.

ORDER MICROTHORACIDA

Colpodidium, Discotricha, Trochiliopsis, Stammeridium, Microthorax, Drepanomonas, Leptopharynx, Pseudomicrothorax.

  CLASS COLPODEA

ORDER BRYOPHRYIDA

Parabryophrya, Bryophrya, Puytoraciella.

ORDER COLPODIDA

Grossglockneria, Pseudoplatyophyra, Ilsiella, Maryna, Bresslaua, Krassnigga, Colpoda, Kalometopia, Hausmanniella.

ORDER CYRTOLOPHOSIDIDA

Cyrtolophosis, Sagittaria, Woodruffia, Rostrophrya, Kuklikophrya, Reticulowooruffia, Cirrophrya, Platyophrya.

ORDER BURSARIOMORPHIDA

Bursaria, Bursaridium, Paraconylostoma.

ORDER SOROGENIDA

Sorogena.

ORDER BRYOMETOPIDA

Jaroschia, Pentahymena, Trihymena, Thylakidium, Bryometopus, Kreyella, Orthokreyella.

  CLASS PROSTOMATEA

ORDER PROSTOMATIDA

Apsiktrata, Metacystis, Pelatractus, Vasicola.

ORDER PRORODONTIDA

Plagiocampa, Malacophrys, Balanion, Dissothigma, Urotricha, Rhagadostoma, Placus, Spathidiopsis, Tiarina, Plagiopogon, Macrocoleps, Planicoleps, Lagynus, Prorodon, Pleurofragma, Holophrya, Bursellopsis.

  CLASS PLAGIOPYLEA

ORDER PLAGIOPLYIDA

Trimyema, Sonderia, Parasondaria, Plagiopyla, Lechriopyla, Pseudoplagiopyla.

  CLASS OLIGOHYMENOPHOREA

    SUBCLASS PENICULA

ORDER PENICULIDA

Lembadion, Marituja, Stokesia, Clathrostoma, Disematostoma, Wenrichia, Didieria, Frontonia, Paraclathrostoma, Urocentrum, Neobursaridium, Paramecium.

    SUBCLASS SCUTICOCILATIA

ORDER PHILASTERIDA

Thigmophrya, Urozona, Cinetochilum, Sphenostomella, Cardiostomatella, Paraloxocephalus, Loxocephalus, Paradexiotricha, Paratetrahymena, Dexiotricha, Pseudocohnilembus, Uronema, Uropedalium, Urocyclon, Homalogastra, Entorhipidium, Entodiscus, Biggaria, Cohnilembus, Philaster, Philasterides, Paraphilaster, Plagiopyliella, Thyrophylax, Cryptolembus, Ovolembus, Mesolembus, Paralembus, Mugardia, Anophryoides, Mesanophrys, Metanophrys, Paranophrys, Orchitophrya, Glauconema, Miamiensis, Potomacus.

ORDER PLEURONEMATIDA

Calyptotricha, Composomella, Hippocomos, Ctedoctema, Paractedoctema, Histiobalantium, Peniculistoma, Echinosociella, Schizocalyptra, Pleurocoptes, Pleuronema, Dragescoa, Cristigera, Pseudocyclidium, Echinocyclidium, Cyclidium, Paurotricha, Paracyclidium, Isocyclidium, Conchophthirus, Thigmacoma.

ORDER THIGMOTRICHIDA

Ancistrumina, Protophrya, Hemispeira, Plagiospira, Proboveria, Boveria, Kozloffia, Raabellocineta, Histerocineta, Ptychostomum, Paraptychostomum.

  SUBCLASS HYMENOSTOMATIA

ORDER HYMENOSTOMATIDA

Curimostoma, Spirozona, Stegochilum, Tetrahymena, Lambornella, Deltopylum, Colpidium, Turaniella, Glaucomella, Glaucoma, Jaocorlissia, Espejoia, Bursostoma.

Ichthyophthirius, Ophryoglena.

  SUBCLASS APOSTOMATIA

ORDER PILISUCTORIDA

Coniodophrys, Askoella.

ORDER ASTOMATOPHORIDA

Chromidina.

ORDER APOSTOMATIDA

Collinia, Spirophrya, Phtorophrya, Phoretophrya, Hyalophysa, Gymnodiniodes.

  SUBCLASS PERITRICHIA

ORDER MOBILIA

Pallitrichodina, Trichodina, Vauchomia, Urceolaria, Leiotrocha, Polycycla, Trichodinopsis.

ORDER SESSILIDA

Termitophyra, Astylozoon, Opisthonecta, Telotrochidium, Ophrydium, Platycola, Pyxicola, Cothurnia, Thuricola, Vaginocola, Ellobiophrya, Operculigera, Paragenophrys, Clistolagenophrys, Setonophrys, Lagenophrys, Stylohedra, Usconophrys, Rovinjella, Vorticella, Charchesium, Ruthiella, Intranstylum, Zoothamnium, Bededniella, Opercularia, Orbopercularia, Propyxidium, Ampullaster, Scyphidia, Apiosoma, Nidula, Campanella, Heteropolaria, Epistylis.

  SUBCLASS ASTOMATIA

ORDER ASTOMATIA

Njinella, Almophrya, Anoplophrya, Steinella, Cepedietta, Haptophrya, Haptophryopsis, Clausicola, Maupasella, Intrshellina, Contophrya, Dicontophrya, Acanthodiophrya, Mrazekiella, Helella, Anthonyella, Radiophrya, Metaracoelophrya, Metaraiophrya, Hoplitophrya, Delphyella, Buetschliellopsis, Juxtaradiophrya, Radiophryoides, Kofoidella, Herpetophrya, Butschliella, Steinella, Sieboldiella, Mesnilella, Opalinopsis, Chromidina.

 

PHYLUM APICOMPLEXA

     SUBPHYLUM CHROMERIDA

Chomera, Vitrella

     SUBPHYLUM COLPODELLIDA

Colpodella

     SUBPHYLUM CONOIDASIDA

CLASS GREGARINIDA

  SUBCLASS CRYPTOSPORASINA

Cryptosporidium  

  SUBCLASS GREGARINASINA

ORDER ARCHIGREGARINORIDA

Selenioides, Meroselenidium, Merogregarina, Exoschizon.

ORDER EUGREGARINORIDA

Gregarina, Gymnospora, Triseptata, Gamocystis, Anisolobus, Anisoloboides, Garnhamia, Torogregarina, Faucispora, Spinispora, Bolivia, Cirrigregarina, Molluskocystis, Metamera, Siedleckia, Metamera, Didymophys, Hirmocystis, Stenophora, Leidyana, Monoductus, Sphaerocystis, Dactylophorus, Stylocephalus, Actinocephalus, Acanthospora, Menospora, Porospora, Nematopsis, Pachyporospora, Cephaloidophora, Caridohabitans, Rotundula, Cephalobus, Uradiophora, Heliospora, Pyxinoides, Nematoides, Bifilida,  Selenidium, Selenocystis, Ditrypanocystis, Heterospora, Digyalum, Cygnicollum, Lecudina, Loxomorpha Polyrhabdina, Ulivina, Sycia, Pontesia, Bhatiella, Viviera, Cochleomeritus, Ancora, Hentschelia, Lecythion, Hyperdion, Zygosoma, Filipodium, Diplauxis, Chlamydocystis, Contoriocorpa, Lankesteria, Monocystella, Ascogregarina, Kofoidina, Ophiodina, Paraophioidina, Lateropromeritus, Extremocystis, Urospora, Ceratospora, Gonospora, Lithocystis, Ceratospora, Pterospora, Paragonospora, Aikinetocystis, Nellocystis, Monocystis, Nematocystis, Rhabdocystis, Apolocystis, Cephalocystis, Trigonepimerus, Mastocystis, Zygocystis, Adelphocystis, Pleurocystis, Rhynchocystis, Dirhynchocystis, Grayallia, Stomatophora, Craterocystis, Astrocystella, Albertisella, Beccaricystis, Parachoanocystoides, Choanocystoides, Zeylanocystis, Arborocystis, Chakravartiella, Oligochaetocystis, Echiurocystis, Neomonocystis, Acarogregarina, Diplocystis, Allanocystis, Schaudinnella, Enterocystis, Ganymedes.

ORDER NEOGREGARINORIDA

Gigaductus, Caulleryella, Tipulocystis, Machadoella, Lymphtropha, Mattesia, Menzbieria, Farinocystis, Schizocystis, Ophryocystis, Syncystis, Lipotropha.

  CLASS COCCIDIDA

ORDER AGAMOCOCCIDIORIDA

Rhytidocystis, Gemmocystis.

ORDER IXORHEORIDA

Ixorheis.

ORDER PROTOCOCCIDIORIDA

Eleutheroschizon, Mackinnonia, Myriosporides, Myriospora, Angeiocystis, Coelotropha, Grellia.

ORDER EUCOCCIDIORIDA

Adelea, Adelina, Klossia, Chagasella, Ithania, Rasajeyna, Ganapatiella, Gibbsia, Legerella, Klossiella, Heptazoon, Haemogregarina, Cyrilia, Desseria, Karyolysus, Hemolivia, Dactylosoma, Babesiosoma.

Spirocystis, Selococcidium, Aggregata, Merocystis, Selysina, Cryptosporidium, Lankesterella, Schellackia, Diaspora, Dorisiella, Caryotropha, Tyzzeria, Pfeiffinella, Matonella, Caryospora, Cyclospora, Dorisa, Isospora, Eimeria, Wenyonella, Barrouxia, Ovivora, Pseudoklossia, Grasseella, Gousseffia, Hoarella, Octosporella, Polysporella, Pythonella, Sivatoshella, Skrjabinella, Calyptospora, Sarcocystis, Frenkelia, Besnoitia, Hammondia, Toxoplasma, Neospora, Elleipsisoma.

CLASS ACONOIDASIDA (?)

ORDER HAEMOSPORORIDA

Plasmodium, Nycteria, Polychromophilus, Dionisia, Mesnilium, Hepatocystis, Rayella, Haemoproteus, Staurocytozoon.

ORDER PIROPLASMORIDA.

Babesia, Anthemosoma, Echinozoon, Theileria, Haemohormidium, Sauroplasma, Dactylosoma, Cristalloidophora.

 

LITERATURE CITED

Baldauf, S. L. 2003a. The deep roots of eukaryotes. Science. 300 (5626): 1701-1703.

Cavalier-Smith, T. 1993. Kingdom protozoa and its 18 Phyla. Microbiological Reviews. 57: 953-994.

Gajadhar, A. A., W. C. Marquardt, R. Hall, J. Gunderson, E. V. A. Carmona, and M. L. Sogin. 1991. Ribosomal RNA sequences of Sarcocystis muris, Theileria annulata, and Crypthecodinium cohnii reveal evolutionary relationships among apicomplexans, dinoflagellates, and ciliates. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology. 45:147-154.

Harper, J. T., E. Waanders, and P.J. Keeling. 2005. On the monophyly of chromalveolates using a six-protein phylogeny of eukaryotes. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 55: 487-496.

Keeling P. J. 2004 The diversity and evolutionary history of plastids and their hosts. American Journal of Botany. 91(10): 1481-1493.

Margulis, L. and K. Schwartz. 1998. Five kingdoms, an illustrated guide to the phyla of life on earth. 3rd Edition. W. H. Freeman and Company.  New York.

Patterson, D. J. 1999. The diversity of eukaryotes. American Naturalist. 154 (Suppl.): S96S124.

Taylor, F.J.R. 1976. Flagellate Phylogeny: A Study in Conflicts. Journal of Protozoology. 23: 28-40.

Taylor, F.J.R. 1999. Ultrastructure as a control for protistan molecular phylogeny. The American Naturalist. 154(supplement): S125-S136.

 

By Jack R. Holt.  Last revised: 02/21/2012