DIVERSITY OF LIFE

HIERARCHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PHYLUM PTERIDOSPERMOPHYTA (WARD 1904)

EUKARYA>ARCHAEPLASTIDA>VIRIDIPLANTAE>STREPTOBIONTA>EMBRYOPHYTA>TRACHEOPHYTA>SPERMOPHYTA>PTERIDOSPERMOPHYTA

HIERARCHICAL CLASSIFICATION OF THE PTERIDOSPERMOPHYTA

This system is a modification of Bierhorst (1971), Bold et al. (1987), Hilton and Bateman (2006), Scagel et al. (1984), and Stewart and Rothwell (1993). 

 

CLASS LYGINOPTERIDOPSIDA (=HYDRASPERMAN SEED FERNS)

These plants have a fossil history which ranges from the upper Devonian to the Permian. They have seeds in cupules and synangiate pollen organs. This may be an artificial group.

ORDER LYGINOPTERIDALES

These plants are common in the Carboniferous. They have stems up to 3 cm in diameter which contain pith with vascular bundles. The primary xylem is mesarch. The leaves are up to .5 m long and have dichotomous venation. The seeds are barrel-shaped (about 5mm long) and are surrounded by a single integument. The beak of the nucellus (megasporangium) forms a pollen chamber. The seed occurs in a cupule.

Crossotheca, Diplothmema, Elkinsia, Eusphenopteris, Heterangium, Karenopteris, Lagenostoma, Lyginopteris, Mariopteris, Palmatopteris.

CLASS MEDULLOSOPSIDA (=MEDULLOSAN SEED FERNS)

ORDER MEDULLOSALES

These plants are common in the Carboniferous. They have polystelic stems with a trunk up to 5m tall with a spray of fronds at the top. Leaves have sunken stomata. The seeds have an integument of several layers and form a micropyle. The nucellus ids free from the integuments. The pollen-bearing structures occur in a cup. Pollen wall has a single long suture.

Alethopteris, Neuralethopteris, Lonchopteris, Lonchopteridium, Cardioneuopteris

Laveineopteris, Callipteridium, Margaritopteris

Neuropteris, Reticulopteris, Odontopteris, Macroneuropteris, Neurodontopteris, Neurocallipteris, Barthelopteris, Lescuropteris, Palaeoweichselia

Dolerotheca, Medullosa, Pachytesta.

CLASS CALLISTOPHYTOPSIDA (=CALLISTOPHYTALEAN SEED FERNS)

ORDER CALLISTOPHYTALES

These plants are found in the Carboniferous and Permian periods. They have stems which are relatively thin (1.8-0.3cm in diameter) with a solid pith. Secondary tissue is well developed. The seeds are small with 3 integument layers (the nucellus is free). Pollen is saccate.  One family (Emplectopteridaceae) os also known as the gigantopterids, which are highly advanced plants of the late Permian and may have persisted into the lower Triassic. The  vascular tissue of gigsantopterids contained vessels and the mature leaves had net veins; their strobili resembled those of cycadedoids.

Pseudomariopteris

Angarocarpus, Callandrium, Callistophyton, Callospermarion, Diksonites, Eremopteris, Gondwanotheca, Idanothekion, Paragondwanidium.

Emplectopteris, Gigantonoclea, Jiaochengia

CLASS PELTASPERMOPSIDA (=PELTASPERMALEAN SEED FERNS)

ORDER CORYSTOSPERMALES

These plants occur in the Triassic. They have small fern-like leaves. The pollen is saccate; the pollen organs resemble those of Lyginopteris.

Dicroidium, Doylea, Pterusuchus, Umkomasia.

ORDER PELTASPERMALES

These plants occur in the Permian and Triassic. Seeds occur on the lower surface of an umbrella-like organ.

Antevsia, Callipteris, Lepidopteris, Peltaspermum.

CLASS CAYTONIOPSIDA (=HIGHER SEED FERNS)

These plants occur in the Mesozoic and have recurved cupules in which the seeds occur.

ORDER CAYTONIALES

These plants occur in the Triassic to the Cretaceous. Seeds occur in circular sacs with slits. Pollen is small and is winged with 2 bladders.

Caytonanthus, Caytonia, Sagenopteris.

ORDER GLOSSOPTERIDALES (=ARBERIALES)

These plants occur from the Permian to the Triassic. They have a cluster of seeds attached to a common receptacle in the axil of certain leaves. This group also includes the gigantopterids

Glossopteridaceae: Glossopteris, Scopus

Gigantopteridaceae: Cathaysiopteris, Cathaysiopteridium, Gigantoclea, Gigantopteris, Gothanopteris, Gigantopteridium, Palaeogoniopteris, Zeilleropteris, Delnortea, Emplectopteridium, Emplectopteris, Neogigantopteridium, Vasovinea.

 

By Jack R. Holt.  Last revised: 03/27/2013